Cyber Science Camp

Topics will be: Stargazing, Gardening & Botany, Bees & Insect Pollinators, Birds & Birding, Kitchen Science & Microbiology, Amphibians, Reptiles, Mammals.

Follow our daily posts starting June 1 and going through July 24th for an 8-week TEKS aligned online Cyber Science Camp for Kids! Each learning module has activities for students, broken down by grade, with activities for all grades K-12. These are designed for Teachers/Parents to use to guide their students with links to workbooks, instruction guides, and student worksheets. QUESTIONS – Email ask@collinsacademy.com

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
This is Cyber Science Camp’s Final Lesson for the 2020 summer camp.
We hope you enjoyed this session.

LESSON 5 – WEEK 8 – 7-24-2020

Fungal spore print art.

Mealtime Microbiology – Art & Fun Activities about Microbiology

This week has been an exploration of Microbiology as it applies in our daily lives – through food, medicine & hygiene. Today is full of many fun & useful hands-on learning projects that will engage your kids while also teaching & reinforcing some fundamentals of Microbiology. Many of these are interactive games played on the computer, or in person to engage learning about a difficult subject in a more hands-on & fun manner.  Some activities are designed to be conduct in the kitchen with adult supervision or as demonstrations, while others will engage your students on outdoor adventures and in explorations of creativity. The sections are divided into topics in Microbiology – Food, Medicine, and Other.


Inside this lesson, you will explore:

More about Microbiology as it applies to Food, Medicine & Agriculture.

Activities to learn about Food Microbiology:

  1. Grades 6-12 Food Detectives Interactive Game https://www.fooddetectives.com/mainmenu.html
  2. Grades 2-12 Spice Lab https://blogs.cornell.edu/cibt/labs-activities/labs/spice-lab/
    1.  Teacher Guide https://cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/blogs.cornell.edu/dist/3/1009/files/2015/05/Spice-Lab-CIBT.pdf
    1. Supplemental Reading https://cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/blogs.cornell.edu/dist/3/1009/files/2015/05/The-Curious-Cook-Why-Cilantro-Tastes-Like-Soap-for-Some-NYTimes.com_1.pdf
  3. Grades 9-12 Soft Rot https://blogs.cornell.edu/cibt/labs-activities/labs/soft-rot/
    1. Teacher Guide https://cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/blogs.cornell.edu/dist/3/1009/files/2015/05/Soft-Rot-CIBT.pdf

Activities to learn about Medical Microbiology:

  1. DNA Extraction
  2.  Viruses
  3. Germs & Hygiene
  4. Other areas of Microbiology

Arts & Crafts to learn about Microbiology :

TEKS Alignments
Safety K.1-8.1A
Tools K.4-8.4A
Investigations K.2-2.2B, 3.2-8.2A
Physical & Chemical Changes 6.5C, 7.6, 8.5E
Diversity of Life 6.12D
Biology 112.34, Structure of Living Things 4A-C, Metabolic Processes 9A-C



…… END Lesson 5 – Week 8 ……………………………….

LESSON 4 – WEEK 8 – &-23-2020

Mealtime Microbiology – Industrial Microbiology

This week has been an exploration into Microbiology. Microbiology is important in our daily lives, from fermenting foods we eat, to the cleaning of our food prep areas, to the medicines we need when we get infections (several antibiotics).  Even food poisoning – which we also learned about – is an unfortunate result of microbiology, when food safety & preparation are not properly followed.  Clearly, Microbiology is important in our daily lives, but you might be surprised to learn how many more things are produced through microbial processes.

Microbiology is also used at an industrial scale. Today, most biological and pharmaceutical products are produced in specific bioprocesses.  The ability of specific microorganisms to produce specialized enzymes and proteins has been exploited for many purposes, including foods & food additives, cosmetics, construction materials, agricultural biopesticides & various pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, vitamins, nutrient supplements, chemical solvents).  Molecular products are also isolated from microbes through industrial processes for molecular biology research.  How can microbes be used to generate so many different & useful products?

Microorganisms can be genetically modified or engineered to aid in large-scale production. Microbes are also very small, so growing them in large quantities to generate these products takes up less space than typically required to generate the product by other natural means. For example, citric acid, which is naturally found in all citrus fruits, is a common ingredient added to preserve foods & beverages like soft drinks, and is the primary ingredient in chemical face peels in the cosmetic industry.  However, when you buy the pure chemical citric acid, it was not extracted from fruits but was collected using Industrial Microbiology as a by-product of mold metabolism from the microbe Aspergillus niger. This industrial process generates far greater product in a fraction of the space it would take to grow all the citrus trees to collect enough fruits to extract the acid.

Due to the advanced nature of this topic, today’s lesson is aimed at an older age group of students, grades 6-12.

However, you may find your younger gifted & talented students interested in this topic. 

Global market share of revenue due to Industrial Microbiology              


Typical Bioreactor used in Industrial Microbiology




Inside this lesson, you will learn:
What is Industrial Microbiology?
What industries use microbiology to produce their goods?
Who was Louis Pasteur & what were his contributions to Microbiology?
Examples of products produced through large scale industrial fermentation.
What are primary vs. secondary metabolites of microbes?

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades 6-12  Biographies for Kids – Louis Pasteur https://www.ducksters.com/biography/scientists/louis_pasteur.php

Reading Comprehension Quiz  https://www.ducksters.com/biography/quiz/louis_pasteur_questions.php

  1. Grades 6-12 Industrial Microbiology 4 Lessons https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-microbiology/chapter/industrial-microbiology/
  2. Industrial Microorganisms
  3. Molecular Products from Microbes
  4. Primary & Secondary Metabolites
  5. Large Scale Fermentations

Hands-on activities to learn about Industrial Microbiology:

  1. Grades 9-12 Industrial Microbiology Writing Assignment – https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/industrial-microbiology

This link shows 10 summaries of book chapters about current applications of Industrial Microbiology being used to solve real-world problems, while also exposing kids to various career paths in microbiology. Have students read all, then write a paragraph about which one was most interesting to them and why.

Videos:

Useful links:

  1. Grades 6-12  Table of Economically Important Products of Industrial Microbiology https://www.generalmicroscience.com/industrial-microbiology/introduction-industrial-microbiology/

TEKS Alignments
Safety K.1-8.1A
Tools K.4-8.4A
Investigations K.2-2.2B, 3.2-8.2A
Diversity of Life 6.12D
Biology 112.34, Structure of Living Things 4A-C

………. END Lesson 4 ………………………………

LESSON 3 – WEEK 8 – 7-22-2020

Mealtime Microbiology

Funky Fungi – Molds vs Yeast

Today we will focus on fungi and learn about how they play important roles in our kitchens – not only as food, but as potential harmful sources of contamination.  So just what are fungi? They are a group of living organisms classified in their own kingdom. At one time, fungi had been classified as plants, but they are very different from plants in many ways. Fungi seem like plants because they don’t move. However, fungi do not photosynthesize, so they cannot make their own food. They are not animals, plants, or bacteria…so what ARE they? Fungi are similar to plants & animals at the cellular level – they are all eukaryotes, but in some life stages fungi are similar in size to bacteria.

Fungi are found nearly everywhere on Earth – land, water, air, in & on plants and animals. While some can be very tiny like bacteria, others are huge – the largest organisms on Earth at several square miles in size. The largest fungus in the world is a colony of honey fungi in Oregon that spans 2,200 acres & is more that 2,400 years old! There are more than 100,000 different identified species of fungi.

Mold is one type of fungus. Molds and other fungi often grow on decaying plant materials like leaves, fruits & your freshly baked bread. It can measure from 2-10 microns in diameter, making it virtually invisible to the naked eye. Molds reproduce by spores (microscopic grains each unique like a human fingerprint used to identify the fungus). These spores disperse in the air, will settle on food, then the spore will germinate and the fungus begins to grow again. When multiple mold spores grow close together they become visible as they spread rapidly across a surface.  Molds grow well at room temperature, and many can also grow in the lower temperature of home refrigerators. Food left in the refrigerator for longer time frames begin to spoil displaying mold you can visibly detect.

Inside this lesson, you will learn:

Various mold spores electron micrograph photo.

What are fungi?

How are fungi different from plants?

Characteristics of fungi.

Differences between yeasts & molds.

Important roles of fungi in food & medicine.

Different types of bread molds. (grades 5-12)

How does mold grow on cheese? (grades 5-12)

Mold vs. Mildew?  (grades 5-12)

                                                                                                                                                                                             

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

Grades K-12 Biology for Kids Fungi https://www.ducksters.com/science/biology/fungi.php

     Quiz https://www.ducksters.com/science/quiz/fungi_questions.php

Grades 5-12 (can be adapted for younger grades) Differences Between Mold & Yeast (table) https://microbiologyinfo.com/difference-between-mold-and-yeast/

Grades 5-12 Series of lessons on mold (scroll to see all) https://sciencing.com/why-does-mold-grow-food-4966797.html

  • How Does Mold Grow On Food?
  • Different Kinds of Bread Mold
  • How to Test for Mold in Water (ACTIVITY)
  • How Does Mold Grow on Cheese?
  • Uses of Aspergillus Niger
  • What’s the Difference Between White & Green Mold?
  • Fungus vs. Mold?

Hands-on activities to learn about fungi:

  1. Grades 5-12 Moldy Jell-O

Student Protocol  https://serendipstudio.org/sci_edu/waldron/pdf/MoldyJell-OProtocol.pdf

Teacher Guide https://serendipstudio.org/sci_edu/waldron/pdf/MoldyJell-OTeachPrep.pdf

Videos:

Grades K-12 What is Mold? Lesson for Kids https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-mold-lesson-for-kids.html#lesson
Grades K-12 Mold Spore Dispersal in Air  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0imKJ1vnTpk
Grades K-12 Cup fungi spore release https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yDc12T0G4rY
Grades K-12 Brown Cup fungus releasing spores https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CxGaHUax-MU

Useful links:

Grades 7-12  Molds on Food – Are They Dangerous?https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/a87cdc2c-6ddd-49f0-bd1f-393086742e68/Molds_on_Food.pdf?MOD=AJPERES

Grades 9-12 Good Mold, Bad Mold. https://scienceline.org/2017/02/good-mold-bad-mold/

TEKS Alignments
Safety K.1-8.1A
Tools K.4-8.4A
Investigations K.2-2.2B, 3.2-8.2A
Diversity of Life 6.12D
Biology 112.34, Structure of Living Things 4A-C, Taxonomy, 8C


……… END Lesson 3 ……………………………………..

LESSON 2 – WEEK 8 – 7-21-2020

Mealtime Microbiology –

Fermentation

Fermentation is a natural process of chemical change when a cell uses sugar for energy without using oxygen at the same time, which is referred to as anaerobic respiration since it happens in the absence of oxygen.  Fermentation is always initiated by enzymes formed in the cells of living organisms. An enzyme is a natural catalyst that brings about a chemical change without being affected itself.

Examples of fermentation are the souring of milk, the rising of bread dough, and the conversion of sugars and starches to alcohol. Many industrial chemicals and a number of antibiotics used in modern medicine are produced by fermentation under controlled conditions. There are 5 types of fermentation, and we will focus on two that are widely used in producing foods – Alcoholic Fermentation and Lactic Acid Fermentation. Alcoholic Fermentation is typically done by various strains of yeasts, mostly belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and is used in bread & wine making. Lactic Acid Fermentation occurs naturally in certain bacteria, which are used in souring milk, pickled foods like olives & sauerkraut, and in making meat-based sausage.

Fermentation is critical in many processes that we find essential in our daily lives. From ripening cheeses, to retting plant-based fibers like hemp, flax & jute, to curing of tobacco & tea leaves, to making Vinegar, to mass producing a wide range of organic compounds (like citric acid, lactic acid), or for the tanning of leather – all are processes that rely upon fermentation.

Inside this lesson, you will learn:
What are the chemical & biological processes of fermentation?
What are examples of alcoholic fermentation foods?
What are examples of lactic acid fermentation foods?
How are lactic acid & alcoholic fermentation different? (grades 6-12)
What are the by-products in alcoholic fermentation?

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

Grades 9-12 Fermentation https://kids.britannica.com/students/article/fermentation/274291

Grades 9-12 8 Commonly Occurring Fermentations in Microbiology https://www.biologydiscussion.com/fermentation/8-commonly-occurring-fermentations-microbiology/55401

Grades K-12 Fermentation Facts for Kids https://kids.kiddle.co/Fermentation

Hands-on activities to learn about fermentation:

Protocol – https://serendipstudio.org/sci_edu/waldron/pdf/IsYeastAliveProtocol.pdf

Teacher Prep – https://serendipstudio.org/sci_edu/waldron/pdf/IsYeastAliveTeachPrep.pdf

Videos:

Useful links:

TEKS Alignments
Safety K.1-8.1A
Tools K.4-8.4A
Investigations K.2-2.2B, 3.2-8.2A
Physical & Chemical Changes 6.5C, 7.6, 8.5E
Biology 112.34, Structure of Living Things 4A-C, Metabolic Processes 9A-C
Chemistry 112.35, Relationships of Chemical & Physical Properties 4A



……… END Lesson 2 ……………………………..

LESSON 1 – WEEK 8 – 7-20-2020

Mealtime Microbiology –

Intro to Micro & Food Safety

This week we are learning about the science of Microbiology. We are going to focus on how Microbiology applies in our daily lives using our kitchens.  Microbiology is the study of bacteria, viruses, and protists (single celled organisms) that are not visible to the eye. You may not be able to see microorganisms (microbes) without a microscope, but they are literally EVERYWHERE! They live in & on pretty much every surface, structure and organism on the planet – including humans! In fact, microbes are essential for our survival, and there are many useful bacterial microbes that we have come to rely on for some of the most delicious foods on earth! While microbes can be beneficial to humans, some can be harmful making us sick. This is why food safety is important – most people do not realize they have become infected through a microbial food borne illness until after it is too late!  Food safety is an essential first step in learning about the importance of Microbiology before we begin learning about how to apply this science in our kitchens.


Inside this lesson, you will learn:
What is Microbiology?
What is Food Safety?
How do we apply Food Safety in the kitchen?
What are the basic structures of bacteria?
What are the basic structures of viruses?
What are the basic structures of protists?
How do food borne illnesses spread?


To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

Hands-on activities to learn about microbiology basic & food safety:

Spanish: https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/065af566-8572-463e-87eb-2d0d26cfacfd/activity_book_color_SP.pdf?MOD=AJPERES

English: https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/e92bd9b4-582d-487f-93d6-d7f4f60d9d9e/BFS_Activity_Book_Color.pdf?MOD=AJPERES

Videos:

Useful links:

TEKS Alignments
Safety K.1-8.1A
Tools K.4-8.4A
Biology 112.34, Structure of Living Things 4A-C, Taxonomy 8C


………END Lesson 1 ………………………………………………………

LESSON 5 – WEEK 7 – 7-17-2020

Kitchen Chemistry – Day 5

DIY Artistic & Household Products Using Kitchen Chemistry

This week has been an exploration of Chemistry as it applies in our daily lives. Today is full of many fun & useful hands-on learning projects that will engage your kids while also teaching & reinforcing some fundamentals of Chemistry. These projects are all designed to be supervised and led by the Teacher/Parent, and can be used as demonstrations or investigations, depending on the ages of your students participating. Use these fun activities as demonstrations for younger kids to help them understand these applied concepts. The sections are divided into two sections, activities that you can use to make useful household items, and activities that will be more fun/artistic.

Inside this lesson, you will explore:

Making household cleaning products from a few simple ingredients.

Making glue from milk.

Making a battery from lemons.

Concepts of Saponification, Food Chemistry, Diffusion, pH, Catalysts, Redox Reactions, Water Polarity, Gas Exchange, States of Matter.

     ***ADULT SUPERVISION REQUIRED FOR ALL KITCHEN CHEMISTRY ACTIVITIES!***           

Useful Things To Make Using Kitchen Chemistry:

Fun Things To Make Using Kitchen Chemistry:

  1. Diffusion
  2. pH & Catalysts in Chemistry
  3. Polarity of Water
  4. Growing Crystals
  5. Water Vapor & Gas Exchange
  6. Non-Newtonian Fluids: Solid or Liquid?

TEKS Alignments
Physical Properties  K5-5.5A, 8.5C
Elements & Compounds 6.5A, 8.5D
Heating & Cooling K.5-2.5B, 3.5C, 6.9B
Physical & Chemical Changes 6.5C, 7.6, 8.5E
Investigations 5.2-8.2B
Mixture & Solutions 2.5-5.5
Integrated Physics & Chemistry 112.38, Structure & Properties of Matter 6E-F

Photo Credit: The Muppet Show

………. END Lesson …………………………………

LESSON 4 – WEEK 7 – 7-16-2020

Kitchen Chemistry – Soap Making

Today’s lesson is all about saponification, the chemical process of making soap. Kitchen Chemistry relies on starting with a sanitized work space and clean equipment.  Soaps are essential for keeping sanitary conditions, as well as for maintaining our own proper hygiene to prevent disease and contamination spread.  In the kitchen or anywhere, soap is an important component of our daily lives, with a long history dating back to the Sumerians, around 3000 years before the present.

Saponification

Fat/Oil + Heat + Lye + Water à Salt (soap) + alcohol (glycerol)

Have you ever wondered what exactly is soap? Soap is a salt of a fatty acid, and fatty acids are long carbon chains that we better know as fats.  These fats can be from plant or animal sources, and the saponification process is the chemical conversion of the fatty acids into salt (soap) & alcohol (glycerol). Saponification uses heat to convert the fats into soap, which is created by mixing with a strong alkaline liquid – a strong base like sodium hydroxide, or ‘lye’ – with water. Lye is made from leaching wood ashes, like what happens when you dump water on the hot bed of burning ashes from a campfire. So, you can begin to see the origin of the first soaps – burning fats from animals roasting over open wood burning fires drip fats into the ashes, add into that rain or water to drown the fire, and the reaction of saponification is underway! Soap bubbles look like they are coming out of the ground.

How Soap Works Cartoon

Inside this lesson, you will learn:

What is soap?

Why is soap useful?

Examples of the chemical reaction of saponification used throughout history. (grades 6-12)

How saponification converts fats into salts. (grades 6-12)

The importance of soap in hand hygiene.

How to make soap.

What is the difference between soap and detergent? (grades 6-12)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades 6-12 History of Soap https://www.open.edu/openlearn/history-the-arts/history/history-science-technology-and-medicine/history-science/the-history-soapmaking
  2. Grades 4-12 The Science Behind Bubbles: https://www.kidsdiscover.com/teacherresources/bubbles-for-kids/

Grades K-12 What is the Science Behind Bubbles? https://www.thoughtco.com/bubble-science-603925

  1. Grades 3-5 Soap Facts for Kids: https://kids.kiddle.co/Soap
  2. Grades 6-12 What is the Difference Between Soap vs Detergent? https://www.quirkyscience.com/difference-soap-detergent/
  3. Grades 9-12 Saponification Definition & Reaction https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-saponification-605959
  4. Grades 6-12 What is Saponification in Soap Making? https://www.thesprucecrafts.com/saponification-in-soap-making-517092
  5. Grades 6-12 The Importance of Hand Washing for Kids https://www.childrens.com/health-wellness/importance-of-hand-washing-for-kids-infographic

Hands-on activities to learn about saponification & the importance of soap:

  1. Grade K-6 Recipe Time – Some Soapy Fun! (safer+easier soap making for younger kids) https://realizebeauty.wordpress.com/2009/07/09/recipe-time-some-soapy-fun/
  2. Grades K-12 How Soap Works Experiment http://www.ekunji.com/learn/easy-science-projects-for-kids/how-soap-works
  3. Parents Guide: How to Make Soap https://www.pbs.org/parents/crafts-and-experiments/how-to-make-soap 

Videos:

  1. Grades K-12 How Soap Works (short video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3kTt6FztPAc#action=share
  2. Grades K-5 Wash Your Hands (video/song) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDHJW4r3elE
  3. Grades K-4 How Soap is Made https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NaqA27eLUSc
  4. Grades 5-8 How Does Soap Work? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JY86dOqk9w
  5. Grades 9-12 How Does Soap Work? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wTuRmwSkuzQ
  6. Fighting Corona Virus with Soap https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s2EVlqql_f8

Useful links:

  1. Grades K-12 History of Soap & Soap Interesting Facts http://www.soaphistory.net/

TEKS Alignments
Physical Properties  K5-5.5A, 8.5C
Elements & Compounds 6.5A, 8.5D
Physical & Chemical Changes 6.5C, 7.6, 8.5E
Investigations 5.2-8.2B
Mixture & Solutions 2.5-5.5
Integrated Physics & Chemistry 112.38, Structure & Properties of Matter 6E-F

Photo credit: http://www.beatricebiologist.com/2014/01/how-soap-works/



……… END Lesson 4 …………………………………..

LESSON 3 – WEEK 7 – 7-15-2020

Kitchen Chemistry – Diffusion & Osmosis

The chemical process of osmosis involves the spontaneous diffusion of water (solvent), across a semipermeable membrane from an area where particles (or solutes) are in higher concentration.  This process takes place due to a gradient created by a difference in the concentration of the solutions on both sides of the membrane.  A solution containing water molecules with lower concentration of solutes is called hypotonic, and it will be chemically attracted to the solution with higher concentration of solutes, which is called a hypertonic solution.  The water molecules will continue to move through the membrane until an osmotic equilibrium is achieved, which is known as an isotonic solution, where solutions on both sides of the membrane are at equal concentrations.  Osmosis is an important passive transport process in living organisms, including plants and humans. 

To grasp the concept of osmosis, it is also important to understand the concept of diffusion, because these topics can be confusing for kids to distinguish. Osmosis is a specific type of diffusion. Diffusion refers to the random movement of particles of solids, liquids or gases from an area of higher concentration to one that is lower. The key differences in diffusion are 1) no semipermeable membrane is involved, and 2) both solvent AND solute particles migrate until concentrations are equal. AN easier way to think about it is diffusion refers to the movement of particles or solutes, while osmosis refers to the movement of the solvent (which is typically water, but not always). Osmosis and diffusion are processes that you can create and observe in your kitchen, and without expensive equipment.  

Inside this lesson, you will learn:

The difference between osmosis & diffusion.

Chemical processes behind osmosis.

What do the terms hypertonic, hypotonic & isotonic mean?

Concepts of osmosis applied to the food we eat, nature & our own bodies.

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades K-12 Osmosis vs. Diffusion Definitions https://www.softschools.com/difference/osmosis_vs_diffusion/97/
  2. Grades 9-12 Diffusion & Osmosis http://www.agrilearner.com/diffusion-and-osmosis/
  3. Grades 3-12 Osmosis Facts for Kids https://sciencing.com/osmosis-kids-8650496.html
  4. Grades 5-12 Osmosis Definition in Chemistry https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-osmosis-605890
  5. Grades 5-12 Osmosis https://www.britannica.com/science/osmosis
  6. Grades 5-12 Examples of Osmosis https://sciencestruck.com/osmosis-examples
  7. Grades 5-12 https://sciencing.com/diffusion-osmosis-lesson-activities-8609725.html

Hands-on activities to learn about osmosis & diffusion:

  1. Grade 6-12 Osmosis Science Experiment (saltwater potato) https://lesson-plans.theteacherscorner.net/science/experiments/osmosis.php
  2. Grades K-12 Osmosis Science Activities for Kids (egg osmosis experiments) https://sciencing.com/osmosis-science-activities-kids-6364184.html
  3. Grades K-12  Simple Candy Osmosis Experiment (gummy bears) https://www.thoughtco.com/simple-candy-osmosis-experiment-609190
  4. Grades K-12 Celery Osmosis Science Experiments https://littlebinsforlittlehands.com/celery-osmosis-science-experiment/
  5. Grades K-4 Osmosis Blood Cell Experiment https://www.steamsational.com/osmosis-for-kids-blood-cell/
  6. Grades 9-12 Diffusion and Osmosis experiments https://kitchenpantryscientist.com/diffusion-and-osmosis-experiments/

Videos:

  1. Grades 5-12 Transport in Cells: Diffusion & Osmosis (short video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PRi6uHDKeW4
  2. Grades K-12 Osmosis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IaZ8MtF3C6M
  3. Grades K-4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v80w3htJNyQ
  4. Grades 7-12 Hypertonic, Hypotonic and Isotonic Solutions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rMa9MzP19zI
  5. Grades 4-12 Osmosis in the Kitchen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H6N1IiJTmnc

TEKS Alignments
Physical Properties  K5-5.5A, 8.5C
Elements & Compounds 6.5A, 8.5D
Physical & Chemical Changes 6.5C, 7.6, 8.5E
Investigations 5.2-8.2B
Mixture & Solutions 2.5-5.5
Integrated Physics & Chemistry 112.38, Structure & Properties of Matter 6E-F

……… END Lesson 3 ………………………………….

LESSON 2 – WEEK 7 – 7-14-2020

Kitchen Chemistry – The Science of Cooking

Chemistry is very important when it comes to the food we eat. The very act of tasting your food is in itself a chemical reaction that involves your taste bud receptors. The art of making a tasty and successful meal IS Chemistry! Mixing ingredients, manipulating the temperature (typically with heat, but also using cold), and the amount of time the conditions are used all act to create chemical and physical changes to foods. By learning how the Chemistry behind the cooking works, you will empower your students to learn & retain the concepts that drive these complex interactions. You might also inspire them to become better cooks, maybe even a great Chef, perhaps a budding young Chemist, or both! 

Inside this lesson, you will learn:

What happens when proteins in foods breakdown (denature)?

How do heat + time interact with different foods?

What is the Maillard Reaction & how does it impact food flavors?

The 3 ways to make bread rise.

What did Chemist Eban Horsford do that revolutionized bread making?

An introduction to the art+science of Molecular Gastronomy.

***ADULT SUPERVISION REQUIRED FOR ALL KITCHEN CHEMISTRY ACTIVITIES!***           

To complete this lesson you will need:

Hands-on lessons & activities to learn about Kitchen Chemistry:

  1. The Chemistry of Bread:

  Main Types of Leavening Agents & How They Work (Teacher/Leader Background)

https://www.thespruceeats.com/main-types-of-leavening-agents-and-how-they-work-4125705

Grades 6-12 How Does Bread Rise? (yeast) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GvD-8ZfxfOY

Grades K-12 The History of Bread – The Chemistry of Baking Soda & Yeast https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qylxpwNhFYI

  1. The Chemistry of Flavor – The Maillard Reaction:

Grades 6-12 The Science Behind Toasted Marshmallows https://www.theverge.com/2017/6/11/15774634/marshmallows-smores-camping-camp-fire-summer-food-science

Grades 6-12 Why Bacon Smells So Good http://acschemclubs.org/why-bacon-smells-so-good/

Grades 6-12 Why is Pizza So Good? (short video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tOkCgAwhh9U#action=share

Grades K-12 The Science of Cookies (short video & interactive lesson for grades 6-12) https://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-chemistry-of-cookies-stephanie-warren

Grades 9-12 Primary Literature Reading Comprehension https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/05/170516105047.htm

Smell the Maillard Reaction Activity https://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/meat/activity-maillard.html

  1. The Chemistry of Gas Expansion

Get Cooking With Chemistry Activity Book (pdf attachment)

What Makes Popcorn Pop? https://www.compoundchem.com/2017/01/19/popcorn/

Popcorn Activity to Understand Why It Pops http://www.chymist.com/popcorn.pdf

Dancing Popcorn Activity https://littlebinsforlittlehands.com/dancing-corn-thanksgiving-science-activity/

  1. The Chemistry of Polymers

From Sauce to Solid, The Science of Cranberry Condiments https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/FoodSci_p061/cooking-food-science/cranberry-sauce#procedure

HOT Ice Cream Activity (experiment, $8 purchase necessary for key ingredient) https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/FoodSci_p079/cooking-food-science/hot-ice-cream#summary

Key Ingredient – methylcellulose https://www.modernistpantry.com/methylcellulose-a4c.html

TEKS Alignments
Physical Properties  K5-5.5A, 8.5C
Elements & Compounds 6.5A, 8.5D
Physical & Chemical Changes 6.5C, 7.6, 8.5E
Heating & Cooling K.5-2.5B, 3.5C, 6.9B
Mixture & Solutions 2.5-5.5
Chemistry 112.35, Properties of Matter 6D; Solutions, 10A,G

Photo Credit: http://www.chem.ed.ac.uk/alumni/get-informed/newsletter-issue-14/chemistry-food


……… END Lesson 2 ……………………………………..

LESSON 1 – WEEK 7 – 7-13-2020

Kitchen Chemistry – What IS Water?

Chemistry is a fascinating science! This week is devoted to learning all about Chemistry, and we will be using our kitchens as our laboratories.  There are many useful daily household kitchen processes that rely on the fundamentals of Chemistry (and Physics) – from freezing water into ice cubes, to boiling water to cook our food, to using salt as a cooking aid – ever wonder HOW these simple processes actually work? Chemistry holds the key to understanding why. Why does water boil at a lower temperature in higher elevations? Why does an ice cube take up 9% more space than the water it holds? Why do fresh eggs sink in water but old stale eggs float? Learning the basics of Chemistry will help your students comprehend the science behind these daily observations we all take for granted – as basic as why is the sky blue? Chemistry is behind that, too! Chemistry is everywhere.

Before we dive in too deep into the kitchen science, understanding a few basics of Chemistry helps to create a solid foundation for the kitchen learning lab. Matter, or everything in the Universe that has mass & takes up space, takes 4 forms: solid, liquid, gas, & plasma.  Most people are familiar with the first 3 states, but plasma is more unusual in that is it like a gas but with an electrical charge & is highly conductive – imagine a gaseous liquid metal. Matter in its purest elemental forms can be transformed into any of these states, given the right amount of temperature, pressure and/or time. 

Inside this lesson, you will learn:

What are the characteristics of the 4 phases of matter?
What is water & what are the chemical names of water?
How do elevation & pressure affect boiling point of water?
Why does water expand when it freezes?
How does salt affect the different states of matter of water?
Why Is the sky blue?
What is pH?
What do hydrophilic & hydrophobic mean & what causes these responses?

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Basics of Chemistry https://www.thoughtco.com/states-of-matter-p2-608184

https://www.thoughtco.com/types-of-solids-liquids-and-gases-608354

  1. Acids & Bases Lesson Plan: https://www.thoughtco.com/acids-and-bases-lesson-plan-608125
  2. https://www.thoughtco.com/what-are-the-bubbles-in-boiling-water-4109061

Acids & Bases Facts: https://www.thoughtco.com/facts-about-acids-and-bases-603669

  1. What IS Water? https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-water-in-chemistry-605946
  2. Why IS the Sky Blue? https://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/climate-weather/atmospheric/sky.htm
  3. Water, Boiling & Salt

    https://www.thoughtco.com/adding-salt-increases-water-boiling-point-607447

https://www.thoughtco.com/boil-water-at-room-temperature-607538

Hands-on activities to learn about water chemistry & physical properties of states of matter:

  1. Salt & Ice:

https://www.jumpstart.com/common/levitating-ice-cubes

https://www.jumpstart.com/common/make-the-egg-float-view

  1. Water loving or water avoiding?

https://www.education.com/science-fair/article/pepper-and-soap-experiment/

https://www.wired.com/story/yes-you-can-boil-water-at-room-temperature-heres-how/

  1. Power of Hot & Cold Water (hint: Vapor Pressure) https://www.thoughtco.com/egg-in-a-bottle-demonstration-604249
  2. Acids & Bases: Making pH paper form cabbage https://www.thoughtco.com/make-red-cabbage-ph-paper-605993
  3. Making Crystals https://www.thoughtco.com/growing-epsom-salt-magnesium-sulfate-crystals-607660
  4. Visualizing Gaseous States of Matter https://www.thoughtco.com/fruit-ripening-and-ethylene-experiment-604270

Useful Links:

  1. Grades K-12 https://www.thoughtco.com/weird-and-interesting-water-facts-4093451
  2. Grades 9-12 https://www.thoughtco.com/how-to-memorize-the-periodic-table-608835
  3. Grades 6-12 https://www.thoughtco.com/list-of-phase-changes-of-matter-608361
  4. Grades K-12 https://www.thoughtco.com/edible-ph-indicators-color-chart-603655

TEKS Alignments
Physical Properties  K5-5.5A, 8.5C
Elements & Compounds 6.5A, 8.5D
Physical & Chemical Changes 6.5C, 7.6, 8.5E
Heating & Cooling K.5-2.5B, 3.5C, 6.9B
Mixture & Solutions 2.5-5.5
Chemistry 112.35, Properties of Matter 6D; Solutions, 10A,G



………END Lesson 1 …………………………………………….

LESSON 5 – WEEK 6 – 7-10-2020

What are Marsupials & Monotremes?

We are ending this week with a focus on some of the more fascinating mammals – Marsupials & Monotremes. These are separate groups of mammals, and each has unique characteristics that set them apart from the majority of living mammals like you & I, which are called placental mammals. 

All living marsupials are found only on the continents of Australia, North America & South America. One common feature all marsupials share is they carry their young in pouches. In fact, the word marsupial in Greek means “pouch” and is the origin of the term.  Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, opossums, wombats, and Tasmanian devils. Marsupials give birth to relatively undeveloped young that often reside in a pouch located on their mothers’ abdomen. How long their young reside in the pouch depends on the species, ranging from weeks to nearly 1 year.  Most of the 334 species occur on the Australian continent. The remaining 30% are found in the Americas — primarily in South America, thirteen in Central America, and one in North America, north of Mexico.

Monotremes are another group of unique mammals because they are the only mammals that lay eggs.  Monotremes include only 5 living species, commonly known as the platypus and spiny anteaters. All monotremes are found only on the Australian continent. The word monotreme refers to their rear opening, the cloacae, the common opening used for excreting waste and reproduction that is found in amphibians, reptiles, birds and early tetrapods. 




Inside this lesson, you will learn:

What are marsupials?

What are monotremes?

What characteristics do marsupials share?

Intro to marsupial & monotreme evolution.

The 3 ways mammals give birth.

                                                                                                                                         Marsupial evolutionary tree

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades K-2 Mammal Lesson Plans https://www.brighthubeducation.com/pre-k-and-k-lesson-plans/57181-is-a-camel-a-mammal-lesson-plan/
  2. Grades 2-12  The three different ways mammals give birth (short animated video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sz3Yv3On4lE
  3. Grades K-12.  Monotreme Facts for Kids https://wiki.kidzsearch.com/wiki/Marsupial
  4. Grades K-12. Marsupials https://www.elephango.com/index.cfm/pg/k12learning/lcid/11429/Marsupials
  5. Grades 6-12  How Should We Think of Monotremes? https://www.open.edu/openlearn/nature-environment/introducing-mammals/content-section-3.1
  6. Grades 6-12. Reproduction in Marsupials. https://www.open.edu/openlearn/nature-environment/introducing-mammals/content-section-4
  7. Grades 9-12 Mutant Planet: The Evolution of Marsupials https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QRBOj53MSos

Hands-on activities to learn about marsupials & monotremes:

  1. Grades K-4 Kangaroo puppet play set: Mother & joey. https://mothernatured.com/printables/kangaroo-joey-puppet-play-set/
  2. Grades K-12 Learn to Bellow Like a Koala https://mothernatured.com/animal-play/bellow-like-a-koala/
  3. Grades K-4 Wombat Mask for Kids https://mothernatured.com/animal-play/wombat-play-in-a-five-learning-ways/
  4. Grades K-4 Koala Mask for Kids https://mothernatured.com/animal-play/free-koala-mask-printable/
  5. Grades K-6 Fur, Feathers, Scales. https://mothernatured.com/animal-exploration/fur-feather-and-scales-a-cover-up/

Useful links:

https://www.thoughtco.com/marsupials-profile-130402

https://www.britannica.com/topic/list-of-marsupials-2060453

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marsupial

TEKS Alignments
Diversity of Life 4.10-5.10B
Structure & Function 7.12A
Investigations 6.2-8.2
Problems & Solutions 6.3-8.3A
Earth & Space 4.7C
Organisms & Environments K.9B, 2.9A, 3.9A, 5.10A, 6.12C, 7.11B
Biology 112.34, Mechanisms of Genetics, 6E; Taxonomy, 8C

………END Lesson 5 ……………………………………


LESSON 4 – WEEK 6 – 7-9-2020

Mammals – Ecology & Evolution

Identification of mammals can sometimes be difficult.  Measurements of mammal bones, especially skulls, are used for identification, and to work out the evolutionary history of each species.  For example, the jaws of a house cat are more similar to the jaws of a lion than those of a wolf.  Despite differences in bone measurements, all mammals share four traits: hair, mammary glands, a hinged jaw, and three tiny middle ear bones.

The fossil record suggests that mammals evolved from a reptile therapsid ancestor during the Triassic Period (about 252 million to 201 million years ago).  These therapsids, which are members of the subclass Synapsida, are sometimes called the mammal-like reptiles.  They were present during the Carboniferous Period, about 359 million to 299 million years ago, and are among the earliest reptilian groups.  In terms of cladistics, which reflects evolutionary history, mammals are the only living members of the Synapsida.  The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that included the non-mammalian Dimetrodon.  At the end of the Carboniferous period (around 300 million years ago), this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today’s reptiles and birds.  The line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split into several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids (sometimes incorrectly referred to as mammal-like reptiles) before giving rise to Therapsida in the Early Permian (about 260million to 260 million years ago) period.  The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, and have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal

Inside this lesson, you will learn:
Intro to classification of mammals.
Evolution of mammals.
Differences between all of the tetrapods.
Intro to phylogenetics of mammals.
Mechanisms of genetics in mammal evolution. (grades 6-12)
Intro to using DNA analyses to determine phylogenetics. (grades 6-12)

Cladograms of Mammals showing relationships among Reptiles, Amphibians, Birds & extinct Dinosaurs

                                                                                     

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades K-12 Mammal Evolution https://www.thoughtco.com/the-first-mammals-1093311
  2. Grades K-12 Mammals https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/
  3. Grades 9-12 Evolution & Classification of Mammals  https://www.britannica.com/animal/mammal/Evolution-and-classification
  4. Grades 9-12 Mammal, Reptile, Amphibian & Bird Evolutionary Relationships  http://vertpaleo.org/Society-News/Blog/Old-Bones-SVP-s-Blog/March-2013/What,-if-anything,-is-a-reptile.aspx
  5. Grades 6-12  School Activities: Evolutionary Tree of Mammals. DNA: Spot the Difference

Lesson Plan: https://www.open.edu/openlearn/nature-environment/natural-history/school-activities-evolutionary-tree-mammals/content-section-3

Spot the Difference worksheet: https://www.open.edu/openlearn/ocw/pluginfile.php/619417/mod_resource/content/1/darwin_2_001.pdf

Mammal DNA Chart for Students: https://www.open.edu/openlearn/ocw/pluginfile.php/619418/mod_resource/content/1/darwin_2_002.pdf

Mammal DNA Worksheet for Students: https://www.open.edu/openlearn/ocw/pluginfile.php/619420/mod_resource/content/1/darwin_2_003.pdf

Mammal DNA Teacher Answer Key: https://www.open.edu/openlearn/ocw/pluginfile.php/619422/mod_resource/content/1/darwin_2_004.pdf

Videos to learn about mammals:

  1. Grades K-12. Bill Nye The Science Guy Mammals Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zezIXq3cgk8

Useful links:

  1. Teacher Resource https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal

TEKS Alignments
Diversity of Life 4.10-5.10B
Structure & Function 7.12A
Investigations 6.2-8.2
Problems & Solutions 6.3-8.3A
Earth & Space 4.7C
Organisms & Environments K.9B, 2.9A, 3.9A, 5.10A, 6.12C, 7.11B
Biology 112.34, Mechanisms of Genetics, 6E; Taxonomy, 8C

……….END Lesson 4 ……………………………………………..


LESSON 3 – WEEK 6 – 7-8-2020

What Are Mammals?

Similar to fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, mammals evolved from within the tetrapods.  Mammals, which include humans, are endothermic (warm-blooded) vertebrates (have backbones).  Key characteristics of mammals include, mammary glands that produce milk for nursing (feeding) their young, a neocortex (region of the brain), presence of fur or hair, and three middle ear bones.  Mammals are among the most adaptable animals on the planet.  They are found on every continent and in every ocean.  Mammals range in size from tiny bumblebee bats (Craseonycteris thonglongyai) to enormous blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus).  One reason why mammals are found in nearly every habitat is due to their ability to move.  As a group, mammals display every possible form of locomotion.  Terrestrial species walk, run, jump, climb, hop, swing, dig, and burrow.  Aquatic ones swim, shuffle, and dive.  Some mammals can even fly, flock & smarm through the air like birds.

Diets and behaviors range widely among mammals.  For example, many carnivores (meat eaters) are top predators in their ecosystem and largely live by themselves (solitary lives).  This include jaguars, tigers, and polar bears.  By contrast, lions, otters, wolves, and dolphins live in larger family groups.  Highly social mammals include some of the herbivores (plant eaters), especially hoofed animals like deer, horse, zebra and elephants.  By living in large groups, these mammals gain both protection against predators and engage in more opportunities to reproduce.  


Inside this lesson, you will learn:

What are mammals?

Key characteristics of mammals.

Differences among mammals.

Where do mammals live?

How do endothermic animals regulate body temperature?



        Photo of Bumblebee Bat, smallest mammal known.

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades K-4 Mammals https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/
  2. Grades K-4 Mammals https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/z6882hv/articles/zp92xnb
  3. Grades 7-12 Mammal Characteristics https://sciencing.com/list-characteristics-mammals-6783587.html  
  4. Grades 7-12 Body Temperature Regulation https://sciencing.com/mammals-control-body-temperature-4900006.html
  5. Grades K-12  Mammal https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/

Videos to learn about mammals:

  1. Grades K-12 Bill Nye The Science Guy Mammals Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Dbrc2jZBJw
  2. Grades K-12 Mammals https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGonwMTPV6g

Hands-on activities to learn about mammals:

  1. Grades K-12 Mammal Activities https://lifestyle.howstuffworks.com/crafts/animal-crafts/animal-activities.htm

Useful links:

  1. Teacher Resource / Grades 9-12 Additional Reading https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal

TEKS Alignments
Diversity of Life 4.10-5.10B
Structure & Function 7.12A
Investigations 6.2-8.2
Problems & Solutions 6.3-8.3A
Earth & Space 4.7C
Organisms & Environments K.9B, 2.9A, 3.9A, 5.10A, 6.12C, 7.11B

………END Lesson 3 …………………………………………..

LESSON 2 – WEEK 6 – 7-7-2020

Fish – Ecology & Evolution

Over the last couple of weeks we have been learning about Tetrapods (i.e., amphibians, reptiles & birds).  Evolutionarily speaking, tetrapods emerged within the lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii).  However, traditionally speaking, fish are isolated (paraphyletic) from the tetrapods (i.e., 4-limbed animals which all descended from within the same ancestry).  Fish, as an isolated (paraphyletic) group, are not considered to be formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology.  The term fish, however, is acceptable if used while considering common ancestry (cladistics) because that includes tetrapods. The traditional term pisces (or ichthys) is considered a typological classification, not a phylogenetic classification. In other words, the term fish is neither a scientific nor technical description, but we all know what fish are, right?

Bob's Mac:Users:Bob:Desktop:external-content.duckduckgo.com.gif

Early in the fossil record fish are represented by a group of small, jawless, armored organisms known as Ostracoderms.  Jawless fish lineages are mostly extinct (no living members).  An extant (currently living) group, the lamprey eel, is an ancient pre-jawed fish.  The first jaws in the fossil record are found in Placodermi.  The Placodermi is a prehistoric fish that lacked distinct teeth, using modified surfaces of their jaw plates to function as teeth.  The diversity of hinged jaw vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage this type of mouth.

Inside this lesson, you will learn:
Differences between 4 types of aquatic ecosystems.
Evolution and Paleontology of fish.
Differences between freshwater and saltwater fish.
Fish migration and conservation.

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades 4-6 Aquatic Ecosystems https://sciencing.com/description-four-types-aquatic-ecosystems-8145.html
  2. Grades 9-12 Evolution & Paleontology https://www.britannica.com/animal/fish/Evolution-and-paleontology
  3. Grades 9-12 Differences Between Freshwater vs. Saltwater Fish https://sciencing.com/different-freshwater-vs-saltwater-fish-6307253.html

Hands-on activities to learn about fish:

  1. Grades K-12 Fish Activities https://lifestyle.howstuffworks.com/crafts/animal-crafts/fish-activities.htm
  2. Grades K- 4 Cartesian Diver Experiment https://www.steamsational.com/diving-fish-science-experiment
  3. Grades 5-8 Fish Migration https://www.fws.gov/fisheries/fish-migration-education.html
  4. Grades 9-12 Lamprey Dissection (video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHeM2IjGG9I

Useful links:

  1. Teacher Resource / Grades 9-12 Additional Reading https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish

Photo Credit:  https://science.pppst.com/aquariums.html

TEKS Alignments
Diversity of Life 4.10-5.10B
Structure & Function 7.12A
Investigations 6.2-8.2
Changes in the Environment 5.9D
Aquatic Science 112.32, 8C
Earth & Space Science 112.36, 8A-C

……….END Lesson 1 …………………………………………

LESSON 1 – WEEK 6 – 7-6-2020

What Are Fish?

Today and tomorrow we will focus on fish.  Similar to the reptiles and amphibians, most of the animals in this group are ectothermic (“cold-blooded”), allowing their body temperatures to change with environmental temperature.  Fish are vertebrates that live in water and have a backbone.  Apart from these similarities, species within this group are very different from each another.  Let’s compare & contrast three “fish”: Salmon, Eel & Whale Shark. Salmon have gills, are covered in scales & lay eggs to reproduce. Eels are worm-like, have smooth skin, and lay eggs to reproduce. While the largest of the fish group, Whale Sharks, give birth to live young (viviparous) and are able to obtain their gigantic size by eating tiny fish, squid, and plankton.  With 34,300 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates.

Bob's Mac:Users:Bob:Desktop:external-content.duckduckgo.com.jpeg

One reason fish are so diverse is because 70 percent of the planet is covered in water.  Animals in this group live in a variety of habitats and can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the depths of the oceans.  Another factor leading to species diversity within this group diversity is because fish are evolutionarily old.  According to fossil records, they have been on Earth for more than 500 million years!

Inside this lesson, you will learn:

What are fish?

Where do fish live?    

Common characteristics of fish.

Adaptations for life in water.

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades K-3 What are Fish? https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/z6882hv/articles/zxgq2hv
  2. Grades K-3 Fish Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJN3gJoZqlY 
  3. Grades K-12 https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/
  4. Grades K-12 Grades K-12 Common Fish Characteristics https://sciencing.com/5-characteristics-fish-common-12059701.html
  5. Grades K-12 Fish Adaptations https://sciencing.com/adaptations-do-fish-8690376.html

Useful Videos about fish:

  1. Grades K-12 Bill Nye the Science Guy (Fish) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=enGm10BsAxk

Useful links:

  1. Grades 6-8 Teacher Resource https://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/education/foreducators/curricula.cfm
    1.  Grades 9-12 Ichthyology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthyology
    1. Grades 4-12 Fish Science Fair Projects https://sciencing.com/fish-behavior-science-fair-ideas-6391872.html

TEKS Alignments
Diversity of Life 4.10-5.10B
Structure & Function 7.12A
Investigations 6.2-8.2
Changes in the Environment 5.9D
Aquatic Science 112.32, 8C
Earth & Space Science 112.36, 8A-C

……. END Lesson 1 – Week 6 …………………………….

LESSON 5 – Week 5 – 7-3-2020

Amphibian or Reptile?

Reptiles & amphibians have been the focus of this week’s lessons.  Both groups of animals have unique features, as well as shared features among them.  For example, reptiles and amphibians are both cold blooded (ectotherms), which we learned earlier influences their habitat distribution and behaviors, since they must rely on the external surroundings for their body temperature.  Both reptiles and amphibians are vertebrate animals, which means they have boney skeletal structures.  There are many differences between reptiles and amphibians. One of the most obvious differences is the life cycle of amphibians, which is a two-stage life cycle where their offspring are typically born into water and go through metamorphosis into an adult stage that uses dry land. Reptiles do not share this strategy. Eggs are another area where reptiles and amphibians differ. Reptiles have eggs that have a hard outer covering (shell) and are typically laid on land, while amphibians lay hundreds to thousands of eggs in water that usually are fertilized externally.






Inside this lesson, you will learn:

What are some of the main trait differences between reptiles & amphibians?

How does the skin of a reptile contrast with that of an amphibian?

What are the threats & concerns facing amphibians & reptiles?

What are the common habitats that reptiles & amphibians share?



To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades K-12 How Are Reptiles & Amphibians Alike? https://sciencing.com/reptiles-amphibians-alike-6672663.html
  2. Grades K-12 Reptiles & Amphibians: Introduction, Distribution & Life History https://www.nps.gov/articles/reptiles-and-amphibians-distribution.htm
  3. Grades K-12 Reptiles & Amphibians – Ecology https://www.nps.gov/articles/reptiles-and-amphibians-ecology.htm
  4. Grades K-12 Reptiles & Amphibians – Threats & Concerns https://www.nps.gov/articles/reptiles-and-amphibians-threats.htm
  5. Grades 9-12 Worldwide Amphibian Declines https://amphibiaweb.org/declines/declines.html
  6. Grades K-12 Reptiles & Amphibians Science Lesson
    https://learning-center.homesciencetools.com/article/herpetology/

Hands-on activities to learn about amphibians vs. reptiles:

  1. Grades K-6 Reptiles & Amphibians Interactive-Online https://mrnussbaum.com/reptiles-and-amphibians-interactive-online
  2. Grades K-12 Reptiles & Amphibians Profiles https://mrnussbaum.com/reptiles-and-amphibians-profiles
  3. Grades K-4 Reptiles & Amphibians Activities & Fun Ideas for Kids https://www.childfun.com/themes/animals/reptiles

Useful links:

  1. Grades 9-12 Amphibian Conservation & Decline Resources ttps://amphibiaweb.org/resources/decline_resources.html
  2. Grades K-12 BBC – Life In Cold Blood: The Cold Blooded Truth (~1hr video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QKS9SBxFPaE 

TEKS Alignments
Life Cycles 1.10D, 3.10B, 4.10C,
Diversity of Life 4.10-5.10B
Changes in the Environment 5.9D
Aquatic Science 112.32, 8C
Biology 112.34, Taxonomy 8A-C

…….END Lesson 5 ………………………………..


LESSON 4 – Week 5 – 7-2-2002

Amphibians – Ecology & Evolution

The earliest amphibians evolved in the Late Devonian period, approximately 368 million years ago.  During this period, early amphibians evolved from fish with lungs and bony-limbed fins, features that were helpful in adapting to dry land.  Over time, amphibians diversified, especially during the Paleozoic era, and became dominant animals during the Carboniferous and Permian periods.  Over the course of time, evolution of amphibians resulted in shrunken sizes and decreased diversity, leaving only the modern subclass Lissamphibia. The three modern orders of amphibians are Anura (the frogs and toads), Urodela (the salamanders), and Apoda (the caecilians).  The number of known amphibian species is approximately 8,000, of which nearly 90% are frogs.














Inside this lesson, you will learn:

The 3 modern orders of amphibians.
The morphology & anatomy of frogs.
When in the fossil record do amphibians first arise?
When did the modern orders of amphibians arise?
How are amphibians classified with phylogenetics?

To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades K-12  Amphibia: Fossil Record Background https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibfr.html
  2. Grades K-12  Amphibia: Life History & Ecology Background https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphiblh.html
  3. Grades K-12 Amphibia: Systematics https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibsy.html
  4. Grades K-12  Tetrapods: Systematics https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/tetrasy.html
  5. Grades 9-12 Virtual Frog Dissection: https://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/frog_alternative.html

Dissection Photos: https://photos.google.com/share/AF1QipMt38viZpU7NJ1n4soCUXnqvb7m3knvpPy9mhG5lRBpF_006mjh8JKQyJWlxuYA7A?key=QkNHNlNVVkczZkRzWGNOSlV4VlY0ajVPSGVHUG1n

Frog External Anatomy: https://photos.google.com/share/AF1QipN16siiu9hb522LBt38t-sHNCuIrCfmu1t5hho792RqtDpMJLVWBSfkeDZXiBaMsQ?key=M0JSZFV2Z3R3emxmLUlDTTdpUzdwSW44d0ZMeGFB

Hands-on activities to learn about reptiles:

  1. Grades K-12 Freaky Frogs Quiz https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/games/quizzes/freaky-frogs-quiz-whiz/

    Grades 4-12 How To Make a Tree Frog House http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/UW/UW30800.pdf

    Grades K-4 Amphibians Frog Activities for Kids https://mothernatured.com/amphibians/

Useful links:

  1. K-8 video: Bill Nye The Science Guy Amphibians (~30 min) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sDb3AyaNYAU
  2. Teacher resource & Grades 9-12 additional reading https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphibian

TEKS Alignments
Diversity of Life 4.10-5.10B
Structure & Function 7.12A
Investigations 6.2-8.2
Changes in the Environment 5.9D
Aquatic Science 112.32, 8C

Earth & Space Science 112.36, 8A-C Photo Credit / Additional Resource https://study.com/academy/lesson/animal-life-cycles-lesson-for-kids.html

………..END Lesson 4 ………………………………….

LESSON 3 – Week 5 – 7-1-2020

What Are Amphibians?

Amphibians can be difficult to define with one unifying concept, but the one thing all amphibians have in common is their need for water during part or all of their life cycle.  Amphibians are small vertebrates that need water, or a moist environment, to survive, and also are capable of using dry land.  Species in this group include frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts.  All can breathe and absorb water (and chemicals) through their skin, which serves as a very sensitive organ that senses the environmental conditions of the surrounding habitat. Because of their special skin, they require very specific living conditions.  Too much sun can damage their cells.  Too much wind can dry their skin and dehydrate the animal.  As a result, amphibians are the first to die off when land is destroyed by urban sprawl or contaminated with chemicals like pesticides.  These are the largest reasons why more than half of all frog species are in danger of extinction.

Bob's Mac:Users:Bob:Desktop:frog life cycle.pngAmphibians have special skin glands that produce useful proteins that transport water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide in/out of the skin as needed.  Other skin proteins fight microbial (bacterial & fungal) infections. Additional skin proteins are used for defense, and these are unique to each species.  Most amphibians have an egg-larva-adult life cycle, where the larvae are aquatic and free-swimming.  Frogs and toads at this stage are called tadpoles.  At a certain size, many amphibians undergo metamorphosis, where the young develop limbs for walking and lungs to breathing air, simultaneously losing their tails in the process.  Once metamorphosis is completed, each amphibian can hop or climb out of the water as an adult, and spend the rest of their lives on land.  Like reptiles, amphibians are also cold-blooded.  






Inside this lesson, you will learn:

What is an amphibian?

Key features of amphibians

What is metamorphosis?

Where do amphibians live?

What is it like to be an amphibian?

How to ID frogs by sound.




To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades K-12 General information (Teacher Resource)

https://www.biologicaldiversity.org/species/amphibians/index.html

  1. Grades 4-12 Intro to animals that breathe through their skin

https://sciencing.com/animals-breathe-through-skin-7815623.html

Videos to learn about amphibians:

  1. Grades K-3 Intro to amphibians (video)
  1. Grades K-12 Frog Talk Learn to ID Frogs By Sound (short video)
  1. Grades 4-12 Metamorphosis (egg to salamander video)
  1. Grades K-12 Metamorphosis (How a Tadpole Transforms Into A Frog)

Useful links:

  1. Grades 4-12 National Geographic 

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/

TEKS Alignments
Life Cycles 1.10D, 3.10B, 4.10C,
Diversity of Life 4.10-5.10B
Changes in the Environment 5.9D
Aquatic Science 112.32, 8C
Biology 112.34, Taxonomy 8A-C

Photo Credit / Additional Resource https://study.com/academy/lesson/animal-life-cycles-lesson-for-kids.html

………….END Lesson3 ………………………………………

LESSON 2 – Week 5 – 6-30-2020

Reptiles – Ecology & Evolution

Yesterday we learned the basics about reptiles, today we are focusing on their ecology and evolution.  Modern reptiles are found on every continent except Antarctica.  In fact, they live in a wide range of habitats and ecosystems all around the world.  For example, many turtles live in the ocean, while others live in freshwater and/or on land.  Lizards are terrestrial.  This means that they live on land, but their habitats may range from deserts to rainforests.  Most snakes are also terrestrial and live in a wide range of habitats.  However, some snakes are aquatic, which means they live in or near water.  Crocodilians are another type of aquatic reptile.  Crocodiles spend much of their lives in swamps or bodies of water. The origin of reptiles lies about 320–310 million years ago, in the swamps of the late Carboniferous period, where reptiles first arose from amphibians. This helps explain why extant crocodiles are more closely related to birds than other reptiles – birds, reptiles and amphibians share common ancestors.

Inside this lesson, you will learn:

Where do reptiles live?

Where did reptiles come from?

Aquatic vs. Terrestrial

Types of aquatic ecosystems

Types of terrestrial ecosystems

The 4 orders of Reptilia

Learn about the evolution of Earth’s life forms (grades 9-12)


Clade dendrogram: Reptiles highlighted in green, the proximity of birds (Aves) to crocodiles (Crocodylia).



To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades K-4 Types of reptiles (video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7cZ1AtTwQQ 
    1. Grades 5-12 Aquatic vs. Terrestrial  https://pediaa.com/difference-between-aquatic-and-terrestrial-animals/
    1. Grades 5-12 Types of aquatic ecosystems  https://sciencing.com/aquatic-ecosystem-9590.html
    1. Grades 5-12 Types of terrestrial ecosystems  https://sciencing.com/types-terrestrial-ecosystems-5516822.html
    1. Grades 5-12 Where did reptiles come from?  https://www.thoughtco.com/the-first-reptiles-1093767
    1. Grades 9-12 Earth’s history: The age of reptiles Earth & Space Science, Geology, Paleontology  (pdf attachment)

Hands-on activities to learn about reptiles:

  1. Grades K-2 Reptile Activities for Kids (pdf attachmentReptiles Theme for Kids)

Useful links:

  1. Teacher Resource & Grades 9-12 Read about the evolution of reptiles

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_reptiles

  1. K-12 Teacher resource for reptiles

https://www.ck12.org/biology/reptile-ecology/lesson/Reptile-Ecology-BIO/

TEKS Alignments
Diversity of Life 4.10-5.10B
Structure & Function 7.12A
Investigations 6.2-8.2
Changes in the Environment 5.9D
Aquatic Science 112.32, 8C
Earth & Space Science 112.36, 8A-C

………END Lesson 2 …………………………………………


LESSON 1 – Week 5 – 6-29-2020

What Are Reptiles?

Reptiles are air-breathing, cold-blooded vertebrates that have scaly bodies rather than hair or feathers; most reptiles lay eggs (oviparous), though some lizards, worm-lizards & snakes give birth to live young.  Some reptiles are more closely related to birds – crocodiles are an example, where they are more closely related to birds that they are to any other living group of reptiles.  Reptiles regularly shed the outer layer of their skin. Reptiles are cold blooded, which means the temperature of their environment regulates their metabolism. Unlike birds and mammals, reptiles are ectothermic, which means that they do not maintain a constant internal body temperature.  Without hair or feathers for insulation, reptiles rely on sunshine for warmth. Reptiles lack sweat glands and cannot pant, therefore they are incapable of cooling down in extreme heat.  To adapt to this inability to thermoregulate, reptiles constantly move about their environment exploiting aspects of their habitat to maximize sun exposure and shade retreat as needed. While reptiles are found on all continents except Antarctica, they are restricted in their movements by seasonal temperatures.




Inside this lesson, you will learn:

What is a reptile?
What does cold-blooded mean?
What is it like to be a reptile?
The 4 main groups of reptiles.


To complete this lesson you will need:

Start with the first lesson:

  1. Grades K-12 Reptiles: Educational Video for Kids  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DefLKnKyQfA
  2. Grades 3-8 Reptiles Bundle: Lesson Plan & Student Worksheets (pdf attachment) (ABOVE)
  3. Grades K-12 Activities to Teach Preschoolers About Reptiles (don’t let the title fool you, this is a good Teacher guide background for all grades) https://www.classroomthinking.com/activities-to-teach-preschoolers-about-reptiles/

Hands-on activities to learn about reptiles:

  1. Grades K-2 Reptile Or Not? Worksheet (pdf attachment) (ABOVE)
  2. Grades K-6 Cold Blooded: Activity http://www.reptilesalive.com/lesson-plans-crafts-and-more/#ColdBlooded
  1. Grades K-3 Make Cold-blooded Animals: Activity https://www.shareitscience.com/2018/08/teach-cold-blooded-animals-temperature-sensitive-play-dough.html

Useful links:

  1. Grades K-12 Visit Smithsonian’s National Zoo Reptile Discovery Center

https://nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/exhibits/reptile-discovery-center

TEKS Alignments
Diversity of Life 4.10-5.10B
Structure & Function 7.12A
Investigations 6.2-8.2
Problems & Solutions 6.3-8.3A



…..END Lesson 1 …. Week 5 …………………………….

TO CONTINUE – Go To – Cyber Science Camp – Weeks 1 to 4 on Main Menu
http://www.askthescientist.org/cyber-science-camp-weeks-1-to-4/